Unlocking The Power: What is Creatine and How Does it Work?

What is creatine?

Ready to unlock your full athletic potential? Then, get ready to discover the power of creatine. It's one of the hottest sports nutrition products, specifically designed to turbocharge your performance.

Are you ready to increase muscle mass, endurance, and more? Before we dive in, let's make sure we're equipped with knowledge on what creatine is and how to get the most from this super supplement.

Let's cover all your creatine bases with our ultimate Smart Protein guide.

What is creatine?

Creatine is a naturally occurring compound that has a similar structure to an amino acid. You can find It in foods like beef, pork, and fish. The body also produces it in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas.

Did you know? About 95% of your body weight's creatine (1) is stored in your skeletal muscles. An average 70kg male typically holds around 120g of creatine naturally. But through supplementation, it's possible to increase that to approximately 160g.

SmartFact: Did you know your body breaks down about 1 to 2% of your creatine stores daily? You’ll need to replenish stores by consuming dietary sources like meat and fish.

But, it takes a significant amount of meat and fish to get a meaningful amount of creatine. For example, you’d need to consume about 450g of uncooked beef to get 1g of creatine. 

That's where creatine supplementation comes in handy. It's a cost-effective and efficient way to increase the availability of creatine in your body.

By using creatine supplements, you can conveniently boost your creatine levels without consuming large amounts of meat and fish.

This allows you to optimise your body's creatine stores, supporting your fitness goals effectively.

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What does creatine do?

Creatine is found in your muscle tissue, with red meat and seafood being the most common food sources. But, the supplement form of creatine has been popular since the 1990s for a good reason.

When combined with a high-energy phosphate group, creatine forms ‘phosphocreatine' or 'creatine phosphate', which then gets stored in your muscle tissue. 

Here's where things get exciting. When you need a burst of energy quickly, like during a heavy lift or a sprint, the phosphate part of the creatine molecule is split off and used by your body to produce large amounts of energy (ATP) that are required.

The more creatine that's available, the more energy your body can produce, meaning you can achieve greater high-intensity performances, give your body a much-needed stimulus, and increase your overall training adaptations.

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Now, while your body synthesises a small amount of creatine, and you can get it from dietary sources, it's tough to eat enough whole foods to significantly boost or maintain high levels of stored creatine. 

You'd have to consume at least a kilogram of beef or fish per day, every day, to keep your intramuscular stores of creatine topped up. Cue creatine supplementation.

When you supplement with the appropriate amount of creatine, you increase the amounts stored in your muscles, reaching a 'saturation level' that provides you with high-intensity fuel for longer. 

This is a game-changer for your workouts, allowing you to train at high intensity for more extended periods than you could achieve without supplementation.

SmartSummary: Your body naturally breaks down creatine during a high-intensity exercise, too, which eventually runs out.

But by supplementing with creatine, you can reform your stores while resting between sets and use it again. The more you have, the longer you can train at high intensity before fatigue sets in. Epic.

Why do people take creatine supplements?

Whether you're a bodybuilder, weightlifter, endurance runner, wrestler, or take part in any high-intensity activity, creatine supplements can help you smash your goals by…

During exercises that require short bursts of energy, like sprinting or throwing a baseball pitch, your body relies heavily on creatine as the primary energy source. 

But, the natural stores of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that fuel your muscles are limited and can only sustain high-intensity exercise for about eight to 10 seconds. After that, the body needs to produce new ATP to keep up.

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Creatine supplements rescue you by increasing your body's phosphocreatine stores—a compound that combines creatine and phosphoric acid and is stored in your muscles. 

This boost in phosphocreatine allows for the production of new ATP during high-intensity exercise, prolonging your performance and delaying fatigue.

Most athletes who take creatine supplements take part in power sports, including…

  • Bodybuilding
  • Football
  • Hockey
  • Wrestling

What are the benefits of creatine supplementation?

Not only does creatine enhance your muscle size, strength, power, and overall athletic performance—but it also has a treasure trove of health benefits.

Performance elevation 

High creatine stores in your muscles equal to better performance and an increased capability for maximal effort performances. 

Imagine being able to add one more set at a heavy weight or a few more sprints to your routine. Over time, these minor improvements can lead to incredible gains in strength, muscle mass, or speed.

Plus, athletes who undergo creatine loading phases have shown a greater capacity for exercise performance and high-speed movements in intermittent-style sports (think soccer, basketball, and tennis).

Increase body mass

Creatine doesn't directly build muscles. The claim that high creatine levels can increase body mass is largely due to its ability to make muscles retain water. Yep, it can cause muscle growth and some water weight gain.

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But here's the exciting part: Research shows that creatine can still be a game-changer in improving endurance and strength.

You see, creatine has been studied extensively, and the findings are fascinating. Over time, incorporating creatine into your routine can be an effective supplement for levelling up your endurance and strength.

Recovery

Taking creatine supplements can also be a game-changer when it comes to recovery. When paired with high levels of glucose following an intense training session, it assists in the restoration of muscle glycogen. 

This is especially crucial for those undergoing a low training cycle—chronic glycogen depletion can lead to unrecoverable damage and overtraining syndrome.

But that's not all—other studies suggest acute recovery benefits of taking creatine supplements, like lower inflammatory markers and sustained muscular performance during the initial phases of an intensive resistance training cycle.

Heat tolerance during exercise

Creatine supplements show huge potential in acute intramuscular fluid retention. But what does this mean exactly? 

Well, it means your muscles can absorb more water. Evidence suggests (2) those with higher creatine stores exhibit an improved thermoregulatory response during exercise in hot conditions.

But wait, there's more…creatine supplementation has been cited as a neuroprotectant in acute and chronic neurodegenerative processes—a contributor to enhanced recovery from mild traumatic brain injuries and blood flow-based heart events.  

It’s also an effective tool for managing cholesterol as you age, which is beneficial for post-menopausal women when it comes to muscle mass maintenance, and so much more.

May support brain function

When it comes to complex mental tasks that demand a tremendous amount of brain energy, creatine supplementation has been shown to enhance cognitive performance. 

SmartFact: According to several studies (3), people who supplement with creatine show improved performance compared to those who don't take creatine.

Now, here's the exciting part…this effect wasn't observed in more straightforward recall tasks. It suggests that the brain thrives on that extra boost of energy from creatine, especially when the going gets tough.

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Vegetarians pay close attention. Since creatine is mainly obtained through animal-based foods, like meat and fish, those who follow a vegetarian diet might see even bigger improvements in brain function through creatine supplementation.

By making sure your brain has a solid supply of this energy-boosting compound, you can supercharge your mental prowess and take on any challenge that comes your way.

Creatine and deficiency syndromes

Did you know? Your body produces creatine naturally, which is essential for various body functions.

But guess what? Creatine deficiency can cause several health issues, including…

  • Parkinson's disease
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Depression

NOTE: Although oral creatine supplements may relieve some of these conditions, research evidence is still limited.

Let’s dig a little deeper into deficiency syndromes.

Muscular dystrophy

A 2013 review of 14 studies (4) showed that those who used creatine experienced an average increase in muscle strength of 8.5% compared to those who did not use the supplement.

By taking creatine every day for eight to sixteen weeks, you may improve your muscle strength and reduce fatigue if you have muscular dystrophy. But, it's essential to note that not all studies produced the same results.

Parkinson's disease

In studies conducted on mouse models (5) of Parkinson's disease, creatine has shown promise in preventing the loss of cells typically affected by this condition—which is exciting news for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Huntington's.

An animal study examining a combination treatment of coenzyme Q and creatine suggested that it might have therapeutic benefits in treating these neurodegenerative diseases. But, it's important to consider the findings from human studies as well.

Research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which involved over 1,700 human participants, found that treatment with creatine monohydrate for at least five years did not significantly improve clinical outcomes compared to a placebo.

Similarly, a systematic review published in the Cochrane database found that there’s currently no strong evidence supporting the use of creatine in treating Parkinson's disease.

Depression

In South Korea, a group of 52 women who were dealing with depression decided to add a 5-gram creatine supplement to their daily antidepressant routine. 

And guess what? They experienced significant improvements in their symptoms after just two weeks! The improvement didn't stop there either. It continued up to weeks four and eight.

A small-scale study (6) even found that creatine showed promising results in treating depression in 14 females who had both depression and methamphetamine addiction. That's incredible, right?

The results of this study suggested that creatine treatment could be a game-changer for females with depression and comorbid methamphetamine dependence. It's an exciting step forward in finding effective therapies for these individuals.

But, as with any groundbreaking discovery, we need further research to delve deeper into the potential of creatine as a treatment option. We're always pushing boundaries and challenging the status quo, but we want to ensure that our information is based on solid evidence and thorough investigations.

Cognitive ability (a.k.a. brain power)

In a study, 45 participants (7) took a five-gram creatine supplement daily for six weeks. The results were fascinating: They achieved higher scores on working memory and intelligence tests, precisely regarding tasks performed under time pressure.

In 2007, another study found that creatine supplementation can aid cognition in older people (8). 

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Participants in this study took a five-gram creatine supplement four times a day for a week and then underwent number as well as spatial tests. Those who took the supplement performed better than those who took a placebo.

These findings are incredible, and they highlight the potential of creatine to enhance mental performance. Whether you're a seasoned expert or a curious novice, it's inspiring to learn about the possibilities for improving our cognitive abilities.

What are creatine’s side effects?

Creatine is generally considered safe when used in recommended amounts. But, of course, we believe in keeping it real and giving you the complete picture. Like any supplement, knowing about the potential side effects is a smart move.

These may include…

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dizziness
  • Weight gain
  • Muscle cramps
  • Muscle strains and pulls
  • High blood pressure 

A friendly reminder: If you're considering adding creatine to your routine, we highly recommend consulting a healthcare professional beforehand. They can help you work out the best dosage and ensure it aligns with your health and goals.

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Using more than 20 grams per day might lead to gastrointestinal distress and water retention, as noted in a recent article from the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. So, it's crucial to find a balance and stay moderate with your supplement intake.

In rare cases, extremely high doses of creatine can potentially cause kidney damage, liver dysfunction, kidney disease or even halt the body's natural production of creatine.

SmartTip: We always emphasise the importance of following recommended guidelines and seeking professional advice.

Is creatine dangerous?

Despite myths about creatine powder's potential side effects, there’s plenty of research to show that creatine is safe for most people. But don't just take our word for it—let's dive into the evidence together.

One of the most common myths about creatine is that it can cause muscle cramps. But, multiple studies have blown this claim out of the water.

A 2003 study by Arkansas State University researchers found that NCAA football athletes taking a creatine supplement for three years experienced no increase in muscle cramps or injuries. 

Another misconception about long-term creatine supplementation is that it can negatively impact liver and kidney function. But studies from the 90s (9) were some of the first to show that short-term creatine supplementation does not impair liver disease kidney function in healthy adults.

Even more recent studies from Uruguay show that eight weeks of oral creatine (10) supplementation in soccer and football athletes did not affect kidney and liver function measures.

But let's take it a step further. Longer-term studies have also confirmed creatine's safety. 

Researchers at Truman State University found that NCAA football players taking creatine for up to six years experienced no pressing long-term effects on overall health or kidney and liver functions.

And if that's not enough, researchers from the University of Memphis reported that NCAA football players taking creatine for close to two years exhibited no adverse effects on general brain health or to impair kidney function and liver function.

What dosage of creatine should I take?

Ultimately, it's all about finding the correct dose for your goals and preferences. For creatine monohydrate, studies have shown that using creatine with a loading phase of 5g taken four to six times per day for five to seven days can increase levels by up to 40% in under a week.

But here's the exciting part. Research also indicates that taking just 5g per day can lead to similar increases, although it may take around 30 days or about a month. 

So, whether you choose the loading phase or regular daily intake, you're on your way to reaping the benefits.

That's why a loading phase is often recommended for most forms of creatine, including creatine monohydrate. It allows you to experience those benefits in the shortest amount of time.

SmartTip: Once you complete the loading phase, you can stick with a 5g dose of creatine within 30 minutes before and after your workouts.

Research shows that taking creatine around workout times maximises the accumulation of muscle creatine compared to other times of the day. 

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To maximise creatine absorption by your muscle cells, pair it with high-glycemic (fast-digesting) carbohydrates like a sports drink or gummy bears. And remember to include fast-digesting protein like whey protein in the mix. 

These nutrients boost blood insulin levels, a critical hormone for transporting creatine into your hard-working muscle cells.

Now, let's talk about other forms of creatine, such as creatine hydrochloride and Kre-Alkalyn. These forms often allow for lower doses and eliminate the need for a loading phase. When using other forms of creatine, follow the recommended dosing amount on the label. 

But, we strongly suggest taking one dose within 30 minutes before workouts, along with your pre-workout protein shake as well as one dose within 30 minutes after your workout, along with your protein shake and fast carbs. 

On rest days, take one dose of creatine with your morning protein shake and some carbs to keep those gains going strong.

Creatine dosing strategies

These different dosing strategies will depend on your individual needs and goals. Here are some dosing strategies for creatine based on what the scientific evidence supports.

Loading phase

Creatine loading typically involves taking 20 grams of creatine over five to seven days, divided into four to five equal doses. 

This helps rapidly increase your creatine stores and reduces the time it takes for your muscle cells to be fully saturated with creatine.

The International Society of Sports Medicine supports this strategy because it's more efficient than taking a daily 5-gram dose of creatine to fully saturate your muscle cells, which would take approximately 28 days without a loading phase.

After the loading phase, maintaining your skeletal muscle and creatine stores with a daily dose of three to 10 grams is recommended, which helps retain muscle creatine stores. 

If you're new to taking creatine, incorporating a loading phase can allow you to saturate your cells with creatine quickly.

But if you're a creatine veteran, a maintenance dose will do the job.

Maintenance dose

Around 1 to 2% of creatine is lost in our urine daily from natural creatine metabolism alone, and replacing these ordinary losses with one to three grams of creatine is essential for maintaining saturation levels at 60-80%. But, a higher dose of creatine—between three and 10 grams—might be necessary for optimal levels if you're a vegetarian or have a large body size.

While most recommended maintenance doses are typically three to five grams daily, creatine research improving performance outcomes ranges from three to 10 grams per day.

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Creatine cycling

While it's a dosing strategy that involves taking creatine for a certain period and then having a break for a few weeks before starting again, the available research to date doesn't suggest clinical evidence supporting creatine cycling.

Most creatine research involves a one-time exposure, a loading phase followed by a maintenance phase, or a maintenance phase over a longer time. 

So, while cycling might be preferred for some people, it's unnecessary for most people. Taking creatine daily has been proven safe and effective.

Combining creatine with carbohydrates

Combining creatine with carbohydrates has been shown to improve both creatine uptake and retention, according to some studies. Consuming creatine with a dextrose solution effectively retains more creatine than taking creatine alone.

But it's important to note that these studies only investigated creatine retention rather than performance outcomes, and it's unknown if the same retention benefit would be seen when combining creatine with a carbohydrate-rich food. 

Different types of creatine

The world of creatine supplements is constantly evolving, with companies developing new formulations to optimise bioavailability, tackle digestive issues, and improve overall functionality. 

Here, we'll look at some of the various creatine supplements available.

Creatine Monohydrate

Ah, the classic choice—creatine monohydrate. It's the most common and cost-effective form of supplemental creatine. In this type, creatine is bonded to a water molecule. It's like the default option, the O.G.

And guess what? It's also the most extensively researched form of creatine out there.

The Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition's (11) latest review on creatine's safety and efficacy even stated that creatine monohydrate has the most significant impact on boosting intramuscular levels of creatine compared to other forms.

Creatine ethyl ester

Now, let's talk about creatine ethyl ester. In this variation, creatine is bound to ester salts, which are believed to enhance bioavailability. But, a study from 2009 compared creatine ethyl ester to creatine monohydrate and a placebo over 47 days—and the results were pretty straightforward.

Creatine ethyl ester didn't provide any additional benefits regarding muscle strength or performance. So, there are better choices than this if you're looking for that extra edge.

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Creatine hydrochloride or creatine HCL

Next up, we have creatine hydrochloride, also known as creatine HCL. This type involves binding creatine to parts of hydrochloride molecules, resulting in a more acidic product and a lower pH. 

Some experts argue that creatine HCL is more soluble in water and potentially absorbs more efficiently in the body.

Interestingly, most creatine HCL products have a smaller serving size of under one gram, unlike the standard five grams of creatine monohydrate supplementation. And, this might be good news for folks who experience stomach cramps with creatine monohydrate—creatine hydrochloride seems to have a gentler effect in that area.

Buffered creatine

This type has a higher pH than regular creatine monohydrate, making it more alkaline or basic. 

You'll often hear about Kre-Alkalyn® when talking about buffered creatine, but there's also a competitor called Crea-Trona® that's buffered with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate—which might increase alkalinity even further.

Buffered creatine is sometimes seen as more effective, resulting in less breakdown of creatine into creatinine, a less helpful byproduct. But, the only large study comparing buffered creatine to monohydrate found no difference in performance or creatine content.

The study observed similar increases in creatinine levels between the two. Nevertheless, buffered creatine, like creatine hydrochloride, could be a more stomach-friendly option for those who experience cramps with monohydrate.

Liquid creatine

Now, let's talk about convenience. Liquid creatine is all about that ready-to-drink formula, making it super easy to weave into your routine. It's marketed as more convenient and more easily absorbed by the body.

But, the limited research comparing liquid creatine to its powder counterpart suggests that it may be less effective than good old creatine monohydrate. It may offer convenience, but it may not give you the same oomph as the classic form.

Creatine magnesium chelate

Last, we have creatine magnesium chelate, also known as MagnaPower®. This type binds creatine with magnesium, and some claim that it absorbs more effectively than monohydrate.

But, just like hydrochloride and the other options on this list, there have been few studies conducted on creatine magnesium chelate. Unfortunately, the available studies don't paint an optimistic picture.

Best natural creatine food sources

When it comes to boosting your natural creatine levels, certain foods are a treasure trove of this power-packed compound.

Let's explore some of the best sources of natural creatine to fuel your fitness journey:

Red Meat

Red meat, especially beef, boasts a high level of natural creatine. A four-ounce beef can deliver an impressive 500 mg of creatine, giving your muscles a hearty boost.

Poultry 

Don't 'wing' it when fueling your workouts. Chicken and turkey are also fantastic sources of natural creatine. A four-ounce serving of chicken packs around 450 mg of creatine, helping you soar to new heights.

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Fish

Dive into the sea of gains with fish, including herring, salmon, and tuna. These ocean dwellers are swimming with natural creatine. For instance, a four-ounce serving of herring can net you 950 mg of creatine, fueling your fitness journey with every bite.

Pork

Pork, specifically pork tenderloin, is another fantastic source of natural creatine. Devouring a four-ounce serving of pork tenderloin can provide you with around 550 mg of creatine, giving a porkalicious boost to your performance.

Dairy Products 

While not as mighty as their meat and fish counterparts, dairy products like milk and cheese still contain natural creatine. Although in smaller amounts, they can contribute to your overall creatine intake, complementing your healthy lifestyle.

Creatine supplements vs natural creatine

While getting enough creatine solely from food sources can be challenging, especially for those with specific dietary preferences or restrictions, fear not.

Creatine supplements are here to save the day, offering a convenient and accessible way to ensure optimal creatine intake for your health and athletic performance.

Let's dive into the factors that make creatine supplements a game-changer when compared to natural creatine from food sources:

Bioavailability: When it comes to absorption, natural creatine from food sources has the upper hand. It's often accompanied by other nutrients that enhance absorption, allowing your body to soak up this powerhouse compound readily.

The bioavailability of creatine supplements, on the other hand, depends on the form and quality of the supplement you choose. 

But worry not: With the right supplement (like Peak Performance), you can still reap the benefits.

Dosage: While food sources can provide sufficient amounts of creatine for general health and maintenance, athletes and bodybuilders aiming for peak performance and muscle-building effects may require higher doses.

That's where creatine supplementation comes into play. By adding supplements to your routine, you can easily reach those desired levels.

Convenience: We get it. Life can toss some dietary curveballs your way, making it difficult to get enough creatine from food sources alone. That's where creatine supplements come to the rescue.

They offer a convenient and accessible option for individuals with specific dietary preferences or restrictions, meaning no more stress in the grocery store aisles.

Cost: Let's face it, relying solely on food sources for natural creatine can hit your wallet hard, especially if you're consuming large quantities of meat and fish. Creatine supplements often provide a more cost-effective solution. You can seek those higher doses without breaking the bank.

The ultimate creatine FAQs

How fast does creatine monohydrate impact your performance?

It can vary from person to person and depends on how you take it. If you're following a loading protocol, you might experience improvements in just 24 to 72 hours.


On the other hand, if you go for the more extended, slower approach of taking a standard dose of around five grams per day, you should start seeing results within four to seven days.

Will creatine help you lift heavier weights?

But, what creatine can do is help you increase your weight training and volume over low rep ranges with higher weight. This, in turn, should lead to greater adaptation to training, ultimately increasing your strength.


On the other hand, if you go for the more extended, slower approach of taking a standard dose of around five grams per day, you should start seeing results within four to seven days.

Is creatine beneficial to women?

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Absolutely! Creatine is just as beneficial for women as it is for men. There's no particular function of the Y chromosome that gives creatine any superpowers in the male body.


That said, the dosing may be slightly different for women. Since women tend to weigh slightly less than men, often a lower ‘maintenance dose’ of around three grams per day instead of the traditional five grams per day is recommended.

Will you be able to retain mass after you stop taking creatine?

Fear not! You will indeed be able to retain your mass. You might notice a slight decrease in weight and muscle volume due to lower levels of water retention in your muscle tissue, but your actual muscle mass, in terms of muscle fibres, will remain intact.

Should I take creatine monohydrate on off days?

SmartTip: To squeeze every drop of body-boosting juice from your creatine supplementation efforts, it's best to take it every day, even on your rest days.


Consider it a daily supplement that you take regardless of whether you've trained or not. By doing this, you'll ensure that your muscle tissue maintains consistently elevated creatine levels.

Is it better to take creatine monohydrate pre or post-workout?

Studies have shown that the timing could be a more critical aspect of supplementing with creatine. What truly matters is consistent use over time. But, if you're curious about the timing, research suggests post-workout might be just a tad better.

Can you mix creatine with whey protein?

Absolutely. Several studies have looked into this question, suggesting no real drawback to taking whey protein supplementation or creatine and whey protein together. So, go ahead and enjoy the benefits of both without any worries.

Can you lose weight with creatine monohydrate?

While creatine alone isn't known to decrease body weight or fat, it can still contribute to your fat loss journey. How?


By helping you increase the intensity and volume of your training sessions. The amount of work done during training is crucial for weight and fat loss, and creatine can give you that extra push to amp up your training volume.

Is creatine useful for runners?

Contrary to popular belief, your body uses all energy systems (phosphagen, glycolytic, and oxidative systems) at all times, to varying degrees, depending on the intensity and duration of your training.


Endurance athletes, including runners, primarily rely on the oxidative system but also tap into glycolysis and the phosphagen system. So, while creatine may be helpful for runners, the magnitude of its benefits is likely to be smaller compared to individuals who primarily train in the phosphagen system.

What happens if I take creatine and don't work out?

Your muscles and tissues will absorb the creatine, store some extra water, and continue functioning normally. You may see a slight increase on the scale, but you won't notice any significant differences in strength or physical appearance.


Fueling your body with creatine is a way to support its natural processes, so keep that in mind and keep pushing forward.

Hit your peak the Smart way

Now you're up to speed on all things creatine, it's time to supercharge your athletic performance and endurance with Peak Performance.

Think performance-enhancing, muscle-building and energy-boosting—this is the fuel you need to smash your high-intensity goals no matter the exercise. Go get it.

Sources

Smart Protein is committed to sourcing only the best and scientifically-backed research in our articles.

1. Ncbi:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2048496/#:~:text=Approximately%2095%25%20of%20the%20body%27s,testes%20%5B8%2C15%5D.

2. Ncbi:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5469049/

3. University of Essex:

https://www.essex.ac.uk/blog/posts/2023/01/19/creatine-supplements-what-the-research-says-about-how-they-can-help-you-get-in-shape#:~:text=That%20said%2C%20a%20wealth%20of,who%20don't%20take%20creatine.

4. Medical News Today:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263269#:~:text=Creatine%20may%20help%20improve%20the,did%20not%20take%20the%20supplement.

5. Ncbi:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221408/

6. Pub Med:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26457568/

7. Medical News Today:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263269#:~:text=research%20is%20needed.-,Cognitive%20ability,people%20who%20took%20a%20placeb.

8. Oxford Academic:

https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/81/4/416/6671817

9. BMC:

https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-021-00412-w

10. Exercise and Sports Sciences:

https://www.scielo.br/j/rbme/a/38JSJPjFhLTx7PBMzt6QQhH/?format=pdf&lang=en#:~:text=It%20is%20concluded%20that%20creatine,study%2C%20creatine%20was%20considered%20safe.

11. Society of Sports Nutrition:

https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-021-00412-w#:~:text=Short%2Dterm%20loading%20with%20creatine,%25%20%5B2%2C%20125%5D.

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